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The educational structure is generally referred to as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern.
Higher Education Level
India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world, and has been witnessing healthy growth in its number of institutions and enrollment in the last few decades. Almost 6.75 million students seek admission in higher education every year in India. India has private sector presence in education services, which co-exist with public educational institutions.
The institutions of higher learning in India fall into the following broad categories:
Understanding the importance of exercise of academic freedom by teachers is a crucial requirement to the development of the intellectual climate of our country.
As students, teachers and managements are co-partners in raising the quality of higher education, it was decided to confer autonomous status to such institutions as have the capability to design their own curriculum, evolve innovative teaching and testing strategies. The UGC, on the recommendation of an Expert Committee and in consultation with the State Government and the University concerned, confers the autonomous status on colleges.
Approximately 22% of the enrolment in higher education can safely be attributed to be covered under distance education programmes. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1985 is the apex body for imparting and monitoring the distance learning program in India.
A number of developments have taken place regarding private initiatives in higher education.
Today there are a significant number of private universities in various states and the numbers are still growing.
Vocational Education & Training (VET) institutions in India include the Institutes of Technology, Technical Universities, Polytechnics etc. These are aimed at preparing students for entry into various areas like agriculture, business & commerce, humanities, engineering & technology, home science & health and Para-medical skills etc.
The Vocational Training Market in India is worth approximately USD 1.6 bn and is estimated to be growing at 25% per annum. Every year, about 0.165m students are estimated to undergo vocational training apprenticeships in state-run enterprises. India has one of the world’s most youthful population (53% of people are aged below 25 years according to the 2006 Census) and there are 310 million people aged between 15 to 25 years. It is estimated that during 2006 – 2010, 71 million youths will enter the working-age population. Here lies the significance of vocational education along with other higher education systems being imparted in the country.
The country has witnessed phenomenal educational development – both in quantitative and qualitative terms, since independence. The Government has been steadily increasing the budgetary allocation for education and the country has also made significant strides in higher and technical education. Currently, the Government spends around 3.8% of its GDP on education with FDI inflows at $31.22 million during May 2012.
From a brief analysis of the current 5 year Plan, one can infer that the standing government headed by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi considers education as a main pillar for economic growth & social welfare, and substantial financial resources have been allocated accordingly.
Priorities for Higher & Technical Education in the XII Plan include: