India Fact File

India Fact File

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About India
  1. India is home to 17% of the world’s total population.
  2. It is accommodated in an area that is 2.4% of the world’s total geographical area.
  3. It is geographically well connected to all Asian countries.
  4. It is the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity.
  5. It has 1.5 million schools and 33,000 higher education institutes making it the world’s largest market for Education and Training Resources.
  6. As against 2,820 languages in the entire world, as many as 325 languages are effectively used in India alone.
  7. It is the world’s second largest English speaking country.
  8. It is the largest home for consumers of education services in the world.
  9. It has the second largest Higher Education system in the world in terms of enrollment of students in higher education institution.

Education System in India

School Level

The educational structure is generally referred to as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern.

  1. The first 10 years provide undifferentiated general education to all students.
  2. The +2 stage, also known as the higher secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation into academic and vocational streams and marks the end of school education.
  3. In +3 stage, which involves college education, the student goes for higher studies in the chosen field of subject.

Higher Education Level

India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world, and has been witnessing healthy growth in its number of institutions and enrollment in the last few decades. Almost 6.75 million students seek admission in higher education every year in India. India has a private sector presence in education services, which co-exist with public educational institutions.

Higher Education Institutes

The institutions of higher learning in India fall into the following broad categories:

  1. Universities: Central Universities and State Universities.
  2. Deemed to be Universities: These institutions are given deemed to be university status by the Central Government on the recommendation of the UGC (University Grants Commission).
  3. Private Universities: These are established by various state governments through their own legislation.
  4. Institutes of National Importance: These Institutes are declared by the Government of India by an Act of Parliament and are empowered to award degrees.
  5. Premier Institutes of Management: These institutes have been set up by the Central Government and are outside the formal university system. They offer Post-Graduate Diploma programs that are equivalent to Master’s Degree programs in the area of management.

Colleges
  1. Most colleges are affiliated to universities and provide undergraduate education.
  2. Some colleges also undertake post-graduate teaching and research.
  3. The affiliating universities oversee the standards of the affiliated colleges and hold examinations and award degrees to successful candidates.
  4. The college sector is managed both by the Government and private bodies.
  5. There are some constituent colleges that are established and managed by a particular university. Similar to that of universities, the growth of the number of colleges has also increased manifold.

Autonomous Colleges

Understanding the importance of exercise of academic freedom by teachers is a crucial requirement to the development of the intellectual climate of our country.

As students, teachers and managements are co-partners in raising the quality of higher education, it was decided to confer autonomous status to such institutions as have the capability to design their own curriculum, evolve innovative teaching and testing strategies. The UGC, on the recommendation of an Expert Committee and in consultation with the State Government and the University concerned, confers the autonomous status on colleges.

Open and Distance Learning in Higher Education

Approximately 22% of the enrollment in higher education can safely be attributed to be covered under distance education programmes. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) founded in 1985 is the apex body for imparting and monitoring the distance learning program in India.

Private Initiatives in Higher Education

A number of developments have taken place regarding private initiatives in higher education.

  1. Establishment of private universities by various governments through their own legislation which vary from state-to-state and also within the state.
  2. Establishment of Deemed to be Universities including de-novo category, involving particularly private institutions imparting technical, medical and other professional education.
  3. Conceptualization of virtual universities for entry of foreign universities in different kinds of collaboration.

Today, there are a significant numbers of private universities in various states and the numbers are still growing.


Vocational Education & Training

Vocational Education & Training (VET) institutions in India include the Institutes of Technology, Technical Universities and Polytechnics. These are aimed at preparing students to enter into various sectors, such as agriculture, business and commerce, humanities, engineering and technology, home science and health, and para-medical skills.

The Vocational Training Market in India is worth approximately USD 1.6 billion and is estimated to be growing at 25% per annum. Every year, about 0.165 million students are estimated to undergo vocational training apprenticeships in state-run enterprises. India has one of the world’s most youthful population (53% of people are aged below 25 years according to the 2006 Census) and there are 310 million people aged between 15 and 25 years. It is estimated that 71 million youths will enter the working age population during 2006 – 2010. Here lies the significance of vocational education along with other higher education systems being imparted in the country.



Government Plans and Budgetary Allocation

Since independence, the country has witnessed phenomenal educational development – both in quantitative and qualitative terms. The Government has been steadily increasing the budgetary allocation for education and the country has also made significant strides in higher and technical education. Currently, the Government spends around 3.8% of its GDP on education with FDI inflows at $31.22 million during May 2012.

From a brief analysis of the current 5- year Plan, one can infer that the standing government headed by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi considers education as a main pillar for economic growth and social welfare, and substantial financial resources have been allocated accordingly.

Target during the 12th Five Year Plan

School Level

  1. Mean years of schooling to increase to seven years by the end of XII Plan.
  2. Eliminate gender and social gap in school enrolment by the end of XII Plan.
  3. GERs in Secondary and Senior Secondary levels exceeding 90% and 65% respectively.
  4. Reduce secondary dropout rates to less than 25%.
  5. Strong focus on learning outcomes for good quality education.
  6. Teacher Eligibility Tests (TETs) institutionalized and made mandatory for teachers recruitment.
  7. Launch National Mission on Teacher and Teaching to deal with issues of teacher education in a holistic manner.
  8. Develop life skills, including skills of critical and constructive thinking, use of ICT organisation and leadership, and community services.
  9. Set up all the 6,000 high quality model schools at Block level – 3500 schools in partnership with States approved and 2500 Model schools in PPP mode.
  10. Strength of infrastructure facilities in existing schools with provision of Lab/Library/ICT in schools and 80,500 ACRs.
  11. Ensure 100% trained teachers in all schools.

Higher and Technical Education Level

Priorities for Higher and Technical Education in the XII Plan include:

  1. Enhance access to higher education by creating two million additional seats for each age cohort aligned to the skill needs of the economy.
  2. Increase Gross Enrollment Ratio to 20% by March 2017 through rapid expansion of higher education system while ensuring quality and inclusion, and also restructure and reorient higher education system to meet the requirements of a knowledge economy in a globalized world.
  3. Launch of The Rajiv Yuva Kiranalu programme under the Rajiv Education and Employment Mission to enhance employment opportunities for the youth of the State. The Mission targets to provide placement to 15 lakh youth by 2014 @ 5 lakh youth per year for three years.
  4. The development of higher education-including technical education leading to enhancement of skill development remains the core agenda for 12th Plan period. Towards this, 97 Skill Development Centers have been commissioned in the State.
  5. Revamp vocational education with new National Vocational Education Curriculum Framework – Competency based Modules-Mobility and linked with sector skill councils.
  6. Partnership with employers who provide trainers and internships, advice on curricula, assessment and certification.

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